Short- and Long-term Effects of Repetition Strategies on Vocabulary Retention

Sultan Altalhab


This experimental study examines the role of oral and written repetition strategies in consolidating new vocabulary in the classroom context. The participants in this study were divided into three treatment groups: oral, written and oral+written. A pretest and three delayed post-tests given at one day, one week and six weeks intervals were utilised in the study. The short and long-term retention of 12 unknown words was investigated over one semester. The results revealed that all three types of repetition strategies were effective in retaining new vocabulary in the short-term. However, in the long-term, the oral+written group achieved superior results while the oral group was the least effective. The findings on the effectiveness of employing these strategies across two levels of vocabulary knowledge (meaning recall and form recall) are discussed. These findings demonstrate the importance of repetition strategies in vocabulary learning.                                                           


Vocabulary, Repetition, Retention, Oral, Written

Full Text:



Doczi, B. & Kormos, J. (2016). Longitudinal developments in vocabulary knowledge and lexical organization. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Durrant, P. & Schmitt, N. (2010). Adult learners’ retention of collocations from exposure. Second Language Research, 26(2), 163-188.

Folse, K. (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 273– 293.

Gu, P.Y. (2003). Vocabulary Learning in a Second Language: Person, Task, Context and Strategies. TESL-EJ, 7(2).

Hummel, K. M. (2010). Translation and short-term L2 vocabulary retention: Hindrance or help? Language Teaching Research, 14(1), 61-74.

Khoii, R. & Sharififar, S. (2013) Memorization versus semantic mapping in L2 vocabulary acquisition. ELT Journal, 67(2), 199-209.

Laufer, B. (1997). What’s in a word that makes it hard or easy? Intralexical factors affecting the difficulty of vocabulary acquisition. In N. Schmitt, & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy (pp.140-155). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: the construct of Task-Induced Involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1-26.

Milton, J. (2009). Measuring second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Peters, E. (2014). The effects of repetition and time of post-test administration on EFL learners’ form recall of single words and collocations. Language Teaching Research, 18(1), 1-21.

Rodríguez, M., & Sadoski, M. (2000). Effects of rote, context, keyword, and context/keyword methods of retention of vocabulary in EFL classrooms. Language Learning, 50(2), 385-412.

Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In Schmitt, N. and McCarthy, M. (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy (pp. 199-227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, N. (2010). Researching on vocabulary. A vocabulary research manual. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Takač, V. P. (2008). Vocabulary learning strategies and foreign language acquisition. Clevedon: Cromwell Press Ltd.

Walters, J. and Bozkurt, N. (2009). The effect of keeping vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition. Language Teaching Research, 13(4), 403-423.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.