Analysis on the Difficulties Faced by a Bilingual Child in Reading and Writing

Rizki Hardiyanti


Bilingual child ability in two languages is become popular issue in the comparison of those two languages. In this paper, the Indonesian bilingual child has parent, school and course using English actively, then his environment using Bahasa Indonesia. This research was conducted to measure ability and difficulties faced by bilingual child in reading and writing in two languages Bahasa Indonesia- English. This journal applied a qualitative research design. Qualitative research is stated as naturalistic study that has the natural setting, as the direct source of data and the researcher is the key instrument  (Bogdan and Biklen, 1992). To specify the design in this journal, this qualitative method was used to analyze a specific person of Bilingual Child. The data were taken from observation, interview, video recording of the child’s reading the English and Bahasa Indonesia textbook story and written test of the child’s writing the English and Bahasa Indonesia summary of textbook story. In both English and Bahasa Indonesia, the reading difficulties appear related to pronunciation, intonation, expression and word stress and the writing difficulties appear related to relevance, organization, vocabulary and grammar. 


Bilingual Bahasa Indonesia – English, Reading and Writing

Full Text:



Alyousef, H.S. (2005). Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners. The Reading Matrix Journal Vol. 5, No. 2. Retrieved from

Bogdan, R.,& Biklen, S. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education.United States of America.

Baldauf Jr., & Kaplan. (1997). Language Planning from Practice to Theory. UK: Multilingual Matters.

Brown, Douglas H. (2001). Teaching by Principle. San Fransisco: Second Edition.

Byrne, D. (1979). Teaching Writing Skill. London. Longman.

Chaer, Abdul. (2003). Psikolinguistik Kajian Teoritik. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

Cohen. (1994). Making Sense of Reading Assessment. Ohio: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Chin & Wigglesworth. (2007). Bilingualism: An Advanced Resource Book. USA: Routledge.

Fontoura, A. H., Siegel, S. L. (1995). Reading, Syntactic, and Working Memory Skills of Bilingual Portuguese-English Canadian Children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 7: 139-153. Retrieved from

Grabe, W and Stoller, F.L. (2002). Teaching and Researching Reading. Harlow: Pearson Education

Harmer, J. (2004). How to Teach Writing. England: Person Education.

Houwer, D. A., Bornstein, H. M., Putnick, L. D., A. (2013). Bilingual- Monolingual Comparison of Young Children’s Vocabulary Size: Evidence from Comprehension and production. Journal Applied Psycholinguistics, page 1 of 23, 2013 doi:10.1017/S0142716412000744. Retrieved from

Mile, M.,& Huberman, M. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Hamers; J. F. and Blanc, M.H. (2000) Bilinguality and Bilingualism in Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Karahan, F. (2005). ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Sympsium on Bilingualism. Ed. James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan, 1152-1166. Somerville, MA: Cascadila Press.

Nicoladis, E., Geneese, F. (1997). Language Development in Preschool Bilingual Children. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Vol. 21 No. 4. Retrieved from

Nunan, D. 1999. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinlez and Heinle


Mar’at, Samsunuwiyati. 2009. Psikolinguistik: Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.

Sumarlam, dkk. 2003. Teori dan Praktik Analisis Wacana. Surakarta: Pustaka Cakra Surakarta.

Sunanto, Juang dan Koji Takeuchi, Hideo Nakata. 2006. Penelitian dengan Subyek Tunggal. Bandung: UPI Press.

Tarigan, Guntur. 1986. Psikolinguistik. Bandung: Angkasa.

Verhaar. 2001. Asas-asas linguistik umum. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.