An Investigation of the Learning Strategies as Bias Factors in Second Language Cloze Tests

Parviz Ajideh, Massoud Yaghoubi-Notash, Abdolreza Khalili


The present study investigated the contribution of the EFL students’ learning strategies to the explanation of the variance in their results on language tests. More specifically, it examined the role of these strategies as bias factors in the results of English cloze tests.  Based on this aim, first, 158 intermediate EFL learners were selected from among 324 language learners of a private language institute in Urmia (Iran) as the participants of the study based on their results on a proficiency test. Second, the selected participants respectively received Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and the cloze test of the study for the assessment of their learning strategies and English cloze test performance during two sessions in a one-week period. The standard multiple regression was employed for data analysis. The results of the study showed that, there were significant positive correlations between the learners’ metacognitive strategies and cognitive strategies and their cloze test performance. Based on these results, it was argued that, the learners’ learning strategies may be systematic test bias factors in second language cloze tests. The results of the present study may have useful practical implications for the EFL teachers and syllabus designers. Moreover, these results may provide certain theoretical guidelines for second language testing specialists.



individual learner differences, learning strategies, test bias, test performance

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