Women’s Oppressed and Disfigured Life in Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale

Bahman Zarrinjooee, Shirin Kalantarian

Abstract


The present study attempts to analyze Margaret Atwood’s (1939- ) The Handmaid’s Tale (1985) based on theories of feminist thinker, Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) and applies her theories presented in The Second Sex (1949) that leads to better apprehension of sex and gender. Beauvoir’s ideology focuses mainly on the cultural mechanisms of oppression which cause to confine women under the title of Other to man’s self. In her view woman cannot be a simple biological category, and she asserts that womanhood is imposed on woman by civilization. In her idea, the fundamental social meaning of woman is Other. She believes that biology is the main source for woman’s oppression within patriarchal society, and challenges the discourse through which women are defined based on her biology. She also believes that sexuality is another aspect of women’s oppression and exploitation and all functions of women. In Beauvoir’s view, prostitution and heterosexuality are exploitation of woman. She rejects the heterosexuality as the norm for sexual relations. This paper tries to show how Atwood in The Handmaid’s Tale speculates feminist issues such as loss of identity, subordination of woman in a male dominated society and women’s exploitation in consumer society where woman’s body is treated as an object, a tool and consumable item. Atwood focuses on the problems such as gender inequality, and pitfalls of patriarchal system for women’s oppression.


Keywords


Biology, Oppression, Other, Patriarchy, Sex and Gender, Sexuality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agee, James and Gaines, Evnest J. Notable American Novelist. Ed. Car Rollyson. New York: Salem Press, 2008.

Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale. Torento, Ontario: McCleland Steward Ltd, 1985.

Beaur, Nancy. Simone de Beauvoir, Philosophy and Feminism. New York: Columbia UP, 2001.

Bouson, J. Brooks. Brutal Chereographies: Oppositional Strategies and Narrative Design in the Novels of Margaret Atwood. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.

de Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Trans and Ed. H. M. Purshley. London: Jonathan Cape, 1956.

Gamble, Sarah. Ed. The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Post feminism. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.

Hudock, Amy. Feminism in Literature: A Gale Critical Companion. New York: Thomson Gale, 2005.

Macpherson, Heidi Slettedahl. The Cambridge Introduction to Margaret Atwood. New York: Cambridge UP, 2010.

Moi, Troil. What is a woman? And Other Essays. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.

Tidd, Ursula. Simone de Beauvoir. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2004.

Walters, Margaret. Feminism: Avery Short Introduction. New York: Oxford UP, 2005.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.1p.66

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.