The Effects of Surface Composition on 6-weeks of Plyometric Training

Cameron D. Addie, Richard S. Farley, Sandra L. Stevens, Halle J. Brandt, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Jennifer L. Caputo


Background: Plyometric training programs may be performed on a hard surface or a soft surface to target specific training adaptations and enhance jump performance. However, it is unknown how surface compliance impacts jump performance. Objective: To compare changes in horizontal lower body power following a 6-week plyometric training program performed on a soft surface (n = 9) and a hard surface (n = 11). Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. University students (N = 20; males = 11, females = 9; age: 20.4 ± 3.7 yr; body mass: 68.4 ± 12.5 kg; height 1.7 ± 0.1 m) with a history of being physically active volunteered to participate. Participants performed an initial pre-test standing long jump (SLJ), measured in centimeters (cm), then went through an accommodation period to be familiarized with training demands. A post-accommodation pre-test for SLJ was then completed. After the accommodation period, a 6-week plyometric training program was conducted. Following the completion of the training, a post-test was performed. The SLJ distance was analyzed with a 2 (surface) x 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was no interaction for surface, but there was a main effect for time. Both training groups improved jump distance from pre- (soft surface = 191.6 ± 34.6 cm, hard surface = 216.1 ± 25.4 cm) to post-test (soft surface = 205.7 ± 38.8 cm, hard surface = 227.2 ± 23.4 cm). Conclusion: Practitioners designing plyometric training programs to increase lower body horizontal power may perform the training sessions on a soft surface or a hard surface and see similar improvements in horizontal jump performance.


Plyometric Exercise, Fatigue, Muscle Fatigue, Wood, Wrestling, Young Adult

Full Text:



Arampatzis A., Stafilidis S., Morey-Klapsing G., & Brüggemann G. P. (2004). Interaction of the human body and surfaces of different stiffness during drop jumps. Medicine& Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(3):451-459. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000117166.87736.0a.

Chen, Y. C. (2013). Differences in takeoff movement on sand surface between beach volleyball and indoor volleyball players. Sports & Exercise Research, 15(1), 64–74.

Chu, D. (1998). Jumping into plyometrics. Human Kinetics Champaign, IL.

Crowther, R. G., Spinks, W. L., Leicht, A. S., & Spinks, C. D. (2007). Kinematic responses to plyometric exercises conducted on compliant and noncompliant surfaces. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(2), 460-465. doi: 10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80197-X.

Ducharme, S. W., Wu, W. F. W., Lim, K., Porter, J. M., & Geraldo, F. (2016). Standing long jump performance with an external focus of attention is improved as a result of a more effective projection angle. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(1), 276–281.

Elvan, Ö.Z., Çelenk, B., Hayirli, Ö., & Elif, Ö.Z. (2019). The effect of eight-week plyometric training on agility in male volleyball players. The Online Journal of Recreation and Sports, 8(1), 23-32.

Jensen, R. L. (2010). Ground reaction forces of variations of plyometric exercises on hard surfaces, padded surfaces and water. International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 533–536.

Jensen, R. L., & Ebben, W. P. (2007). Quantifying plyometric intensity via rate of force development, Knee Joint, and ground reaction forces. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 763.

Katkat, D., Bulut, Y., Demir, M., & Akar, S. (2009). Effects of different sport surfaces on muscle performance. Biology of Sport, 26(3), 285–296.

Lamas, L., Ugrinowitsch, C., Rodacki, A., Pereira, G., Mattos, E. C. T., Kohn, A. F., & Tricoli, V. (2012). Effects of strength and power training on neuromuscular adaptations and jumping movement pattern and performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(12), 3335–3344.

Miller, M. G., Berry, D. C., Gilders, R., & Bullard, S. (2001). Recommendations for implementing an aquatic plyometric program. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 23(6), 28–35.

Miller, M., Ploeg, A. H., Dibbet, T. J., Holcomb, W. R., Berry, D. C., & O'Donoghue, J. (2010). The effects of high volume aquatic plyometric training on vertical jump, muscle power, and torque. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 39-49.

Nagaraja, Y., & Gajanana Prabhu, B. (2017). Effect of eight weeks land and sand based plyometric training on selected physical and physiological variables. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 6(2), 40–45.

Ramírez-Campillo, R., Andrade, D. C., & Izquierdo, M. (2013). Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(10), 2714–2722.

Ramirez-Campillo, R., Álvarez, C., García-Pinillos, F., García-Ramos, A., Loturco, I., Chaabene, H., & Granacher, U. (2020). Effects of combined surfaces vs. single-surface plyometric training on soccer players' Physical Fitness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 34(9), 2644–2653.

Sozbir, K. (2016). Effects of 6-week plyometric training on vertical jump performance and muscle activation of lower extremity muscles. The Sport Journal, 3, 1-14.

Wakai, M., & Linthorne, N. P. (2005). Optimum take-off angle in the standing long jump. Human Movement Science, 24(1), 81–96.

Weir, J. P. (2005). Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(1), 231–240.

Wickens, T. D., & Keppel, G. (2004). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook. Pearson Prentice-Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.