The Consequences of the Restrictive Measures Due to Two Strict Covid-19 Lockdowns on Self-Reported Physical Activity in Adolescents

Ermioni S. Katartzi, Maria G. Kontou, Ioannis Pappas, Sofia Monastiridi, Foteini Girousi

Abstract


Background: Restrictions due to COVID-19 lockdowns reduced the possibilities of children and adolescents for being active, with negative consequences in adopting a healthy lifestyle. Purpose: To compare Greek adolescents’ self-reported weekly participation in physical activity, during and before the two initial strict lockdowns, due to COVID-19. Secondary aims were to examine these differences with regard to gender, and associations between weekly physical activity participation with health status variables. Methods: Three hundred and sixty-three adolescents (Ν=363) from secondary schools, in the Greek territory (108 boys and 255 girls) filled in the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Children’s Health-Related Quality of Life Children’s Form, online. It was a cross-sectional study and data were collected during first and second strict lockdowns, from different adolescents who filled in the above online questionnaires once. Results: Adolescents reduced significantly weekly frequency of strenuous, moderate and total physical activity, during lockdowns (p<.05). Time factor had a different effect on boys and girls, only in moderate physical activity (p<.05). Positive correlations were found between strenuous and total physical activity with positive moods, and moderate physical activity with cognitive functioning and school performance, during lockdowns (p<.05). Conclusions: This study adds information regarding the negative impact on physical activity participation in Greek adolescents during COVID-19 strict lockdowns. The findings, also, highlighted that reduced physical activity among adolescents during lockdowns associated with poorer psychosocial status. Thus, these results could be used to inform strategies for promoting health movement behaviors, in order to reduce possible negative consequences during future pandemics.

Keywords


Leisure Activities, Exercise, Healthy Lifestyle, Health Status

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alghadir, A.H., Iqbal, Z.A., & Gabr, S.A. (2021). The Relationships of Watching Television, Computer Use, Physical Activity and Food Preferences to Body Mass Index: Gender and Nativity Differences among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 9915.

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189915

Androutsos, O., Perperidi, M., Georgiou, C., & Chouliaras, G. (2021). Lifestyle Changes and Determinants of Children’s and Adolescents’ Body Weight Increase during the First COVID-19 Lockdown in Greece: The COV-EAT Study. Nutrients, 13, 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030930

Biddle, S.J.H., Gorely, T., Pearson, N., & Bull, F.C. (2011). An assessment of self-reported physical activity instruments in young people for population surveillance: Project ALPHA. International Journalof Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1). http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/8/1/1

Capel, S., & Blair, R. (2019). Physical education – a joined up approach. In S. Capel, S., & Blair, R. (Eds). Debates in Physical Education (2nd edition). London: Routledge.

Chambonniere, C., Lambert, C., Fearnbach, N., Tardieu, M., Fillon, A., Genin, P., Larras, B., Melsens, P., Bois, J., Pereira, B., Tremblay, A., Thivel, D., & Duclosb, M. (2021). Effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity and sedentary behaviors in French children and adolescents: new results from the ONAPS national survey. European journal of integrative medicine, 43, 101308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2021.101308

Chang, Y.K., Hung, C.L., Timme, S., Nosrat, S., & Chu, C.H. (2020). Exercise Behavior and Mood during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Taiwan: Lessons for the Future. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7092. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197092

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dunton, G.F., Do, B., & Wang, S.D. (2020). Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the U.S. BMC Public Health, 20, 1351. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09429-3

Santiago Ferreira, G. B., Nunes de Souza, S. S., Ramos Reis, A. R., Lima Pereira, H. A., & Brito Gomes, J. L. (2021). The Level of Physical Activity among the Middle Age and Older Adult with type 1 and 2 Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Aging Health and Movement, 3(3), 5-10. Retrieved from http://ijahm.com/index.php/IJAHM/article/view/37

Gionet, N.J., & Godin, G. (1989). Self-reported exercise behavior of employees: a validity study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine,31(12), 969–973. https://doi.org/10.1097/00043764-198912000-00007

Girden, E.R. (1992). ANOVA: repeated measures. Sage university paper series on quantitative applications in the social sciences, 07-084. Newbury Park, CA:Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412983419

Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behaviour in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 141-146.

Godin, G. (2011). The Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health & Fitness Journal of Canada, 4(1), 18-22. https://doi.org/10.14288/hfjc.v4i1.82

Hellenic Statistical Authority (2019). Survey on Secondary Vocational Education, end of school year (2019) (Version 1.0). Available: https://www.statistics.gr/en/home/ (March 2020).

Inchley, J., Currie, D., Budisavljevic, S., Torsheim, T., Jaastad, A., Cosma, A., Kelly, C., Arnarsson, A.M., & Samdal, O. (2020). Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being: Findings from the 2017/2018 health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada International report volume 2. Key data. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Khan, M. J. (2020). Devising a Complete Exercise Protocol Assisting Older Adults Isolated During COVID-19: A Mini Review. International Journal of Aging Health and Movement, 2(1), 1-7. Retrieved from http://ijahm.com/index.php/IJAHM/article/view/7

Kovacs, V.A., Starc, G., Brandes, M., Kaj, M., Blagus, R., Leskošek, B., Suesse, T., Dinya, E. Guinhouya, B.C., Zito, V., Rocha, P.M., Gonzalez, B.P., Kontsevaya, A., Brzezinski, M., Bidiugan, R., Kiraly, A., Csányi, T., & Okely, A.D. (2021). Physical activity, screen time and the COVID-19 school closures in Europe – An observational study in 10 countries. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1897166

Loades, M. E., Chatburn, E., Higson-Sweeney, N., Reynolds, S.,Shafran, R., Brigden, A.,Linney, C., McManus, M.N., Borwick, A., & Crawley, E. (2020). Rapid systematic review: The impact of social isolation and lonelinesson the mental health of children and adolescents in thecontext of COVID-19. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59 (11), 1218-1239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.05.009

Marker, A.M., Steele, R.G., & Noser, A.E. (2018). Physical activity and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology: official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 37(10), 893–903. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/ hea0000653

Moore, S.A., Faulkner, G., Rhodes, R.E., Brussoni, M., Chulak-Bozzer, T., Ferguson, L.J., Mitra, R., O'Reilly, N., Spence, J.C., Vanderloo, L.M. & Tremblay, M.S. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth: a national survey. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 85. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00987-8

Morres, I.D., Galanis, E., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Androutsos, O., & Theodorakis, Y. (2021). Physical Activity, Sedentariness, Eating Behaviour and Well-Being during a COVID-19 Lockdown Period in Greek Adolescents. Nutrients, 13, 1449. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051449

Ng, K.W., Augustine, L., & Inchley, J.C. (2018). Comparisons in screen-time behaviors among adolescents with and without long-term illnesses or disabilities: Results from 2013/14 HBSC study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (10), 2276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102276

Ng, K., Cooper, J., McHale, F., Clifford, J., & Woods, C. (2020). Barriers and facilitators to changes in adolescent physical activity during COVID-19. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 0, e000919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000919

Ng, K., Cosmac, A., Karel Svacina, K., Boniel-Nissim, M., & Badura, P. (2021). Czech adolescents’ remote school and health experiences during the spring 2020 COVID-19 lockdown. Preventive Medicine Reports, 22, 101386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101386

Qualtrics Experience Management. (2020). Determining sample size: how to make sure you get the correct sample size. (Online) Available: https://www.qualtrics.com/experience-management/research/determine-sample-size/ (March 2020).

Racine, N., Cooke, J.E., Eirich, R., Korczak, D.J., McArthur, B., & Madigan, S. (2020). Child and adolescent mental illness during COVID-19: A rapid review. Psychiatry Research, 292, 113307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113307.

Sadeghi, H. & Jehu, D.A. (2022). Exergaming to improve physical, psychological and cognitive health among home office workers: A COVID-19 pandemic commentary. Work, 71, (1), 13-17. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-211000

Sawilowsky, S. (2009). New effect size rules of thumb. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 8(2), 467–474. https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1257035100

Schmidt, S.C.E., Anedda, B., Burchartz, A., Eichsteller, A., Kolb, S., Nigg, C., Niessner, C., Oriwol, D., Worth, A., & Woll, A. (2020). Physical activity and screen time of children and adolescents before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: a natural experiment. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21780. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78438-4.

Sekulic, D., Mateo Blazevic, M., Gilic, B., Kvesic, I., & Zenic, N. (2020). Prospective Analysis of Levels and Correlates of Physical Activity during COVID-19 Pandemic and Imposed Rules of Social Distancing; Gender Specific Study among Adolescents from Southern Croatia. Sustainability, 12, 4072. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104072

Štveráková, T., Jačisko, J., Busch, A. Šafářová, M., Kolář, P., & Kobesová , A. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on Physical Activity of Czech children. PLoS One, 16(7), e0254244. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254244

Terwee, C.B., Mokkink, L.B., van Poppel, M.N., Chinapaw, M.J.M., van Mechelen, V., & de Vet, H.C.W. (2010). Qualitative attributes and measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires: a checklist. Sports Medicine, 40(7), 525–537. https://doi.org/10.2165/11531370-000000000-00000

Theodorakis, Y. & Hassandra, M. (2005). Smoking and Exercise, Part ΙΙ: Differences between Exercisers and Non-Exercisers. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 3 (3), 239 – 248.

Vogels, T., Verrips, G.H.W., Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P., Fekkes, M., Kamphuis, R.P., Koopman, H.M., Theunissen N.C.M., & Wit, J.M. (1998). Measuring health-related quality of life in children: the development of the TACQOL parent form. Quality of Life Research, 7, 457–465. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4034771

World Health Organization (2020a). WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Available: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015128 [Accessed 16 May 2022].

World Health Organization (2020b). WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic [Accessed 16 May 2022]

World Health Organization - Regional Office for Europe (EuroWHO, 2020). Stay physically active during self-quarantine.http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/physical-activity/news/news/2020/3/how-to-stay-physically-active-during-covid-19-self-quarantine [Accessed 16 May 2022]

Wright, L.J., Williams, S.E., & Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S. (2021) Physical Activity Protects Against the Negative Impact of Coronavirus Fear on Adolescent Mental Health and Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 580511. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.580

Wu, X.Y., Han, L.H., Zhang, J.H., Luo, S., Hu, J.W., & Sun, K. (2017) The influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life among the general population of children and adolescents: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 12(11), e0187668. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187668

Wunsch, K., Nigg, C., Niessner, C., Schmidt, S.C.E., Oriwol, D., Hanssen-Doose, A., Burchartz, A., Eichsteller, A., Kolb, S., Worth, A., & Woll, A. (2021). The Impact of COVID-19 on the Interrelation of Physical Activity, Screen Time and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents in Germany: Results of the Motorik-Modul Study. Children, 8(2), 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020098

Yelizarova, O., Stankevych, T., Parats, A., Polka, N., Lynchak, O., Diuba, N., Hozaka, S. (2022). The effect of two COVID-19 lockdowns on physical activity of school-age children. Sports Medicine and Health Science, 4, 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smhs.2022.01.002

Zelener, J., & Schneider, M. (2016). Adolescents and Self-Reported Physical Activity: An Evaluation of the Modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. International Journal of Exercise Science, 9(5), 587–598.

Zhang, X., Zhu, W., Kang, S., Qiu, L., Lu, Z., & Sun, Y. (2020). Association between Physical Activity and Mood States of Children and Adolescents in Social Isolation during the COVID-19 Epidemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20), 7666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph 17207666




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.3p.47

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.