Coordination of Elbow, Shoulder, and Trunk Movements in the Backswing Phase of Baseball Pitching to Throw a Fastball

Hiromu Katsumata, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Fumiya Kunikata

Abstract


Background: Baseball pitchers adopt a backswing motion to accelerate a forward swing of the arm and project the ball. However, knowledge about the backswing movement for delivering a fast pitch has not been accumulated enough. Objective: This study aimed to identify the kinematic parameters of the backswing movement associated with differences in the speed of pitches and capture the joint kinematics of the throwing arm in the backswing phase. Methodology: Based on the quasi-experimental study design, fifteen male college students with various levels of baseball experience pitched a baseball at their maximum, 40%, 60%, and 80% of their full ball speed. A motion capture system sampled data at 250 Hz, and three-dimensional data were acquired for shoulder and elbow joint movements, upper-trunk rotation, and ball movement in the backswing phase. Correlation analysis between the joint and ball parameters was conducted, and the relative timings of these parameters were calculated. Results: The speed of pitch showed a significant correlation with the ball peak speed in the backswing phase (r = 0.75), which showed a significant correlation with the velocity of the elbow flexion (r = −0.81), shoulder abduction (r = 0.75), external rotation (r = −0.86) and the upper trunk’s rotation (r = 0.75). Conclusions: The backswing movement producing the higher ball’s peak speed and its abrupt transition to the forward swing was associated with the higher release speed. This kinematic feature was achieved by the temporal coordination of the arm joint movements with the upper trunk’s rotation.

Keywords


Applied Kinesiology, Task Performance, and Analysis, Biomechanical Phenomena, Upper Extremity, Baseball

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguinaldo, A. L., Buttermore, J., & Chambers, H. (2007). Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23, 42-51. doi: 10.1123/jab.23.1.42.

Andel, S. v., Pieper, R., Werner, I., Wachholz, F., Mohr, M., & Federolf, P. (2021). Implications of optimal feedback control theory for sport coaching and motor learning: a systematic review. Motor Control, 17, 1-24. doi:10.1123/mc.2021-0041

Bernstein, N. (1967). The coordination and regulation of movement. Oxford, England: Permagon Press.

Calabrese, G. J. (2013). Pitching mechanics, revisited. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 8(5), 652-660.

Chu, S. K., Jayabalan, P., Kibler, W. B., & Press, J. (2016). The kinetic chain revisited: new concepts on throwing mechanics and injury. The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 8(3 Suppl), S69-77. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.11.015

Daniel, W. W., & Cross, C. L. (2013). Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences (10th ed.). New Jersey: Wiley.

Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Zheng, N., Barrentine, S. W., & Andrews, J. R. (2001). Kinematic comparisons of 1996 Olympic baseball pitchers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19(9), 665-676. doi: 10.1080/02640410152475793

Feltner. (1989). Three-dimensional interactions in a two-segment kinetic chain. Part II: Application to the throwing arm in baseball pitching. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 5, 420-450. doi: https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsb.5.4.420

Feltner, & Dapena. (1986). Dynamics of the shoulder and elbow joints of the throwing arm during a baseball pitch. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2, 235-259. doi: https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsb.2.4.235

Fleisig, G. S., Barrentine, S. W., Zheng, N., Escamilla, R. F., & Andrews, J. R. (1999). Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development. Journal of Biomechanics, 32, 1371-1375. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(99)00127-x

Fleisig, G. S., Hsu, W. K., Fortenbaugh, D., Cordover, A., & Press, J. M. (2013). Trunk axial rotation in baseball pitching and batting. Sports Biomechanics, 12(4), 324-333. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2013.838693

Guido, J. J. A., & Werner, S. L. (2012). Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in collegiate baseball pitchers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(7), 1782-1785. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824e1211

Hay, J. G. (1993). The Biomechanics of Sports Techniques. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

House, T., Heil, G., & Johnson, S. (2006). The Art & Science of Pitching. Monterey, CA: Coaches Choice.

Johnson, D. (2013). The complete guide to pitching Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Katsumata, H., Sasaki, J., & Kawai, T. (2017). A preliminary study to capture the characteristics of backswing movement in baseball throwing. Journal of Ergonomics, 7(3), 1-6. doi:10.4172/2165-7556.1000201

Kugler, P. N., & Turvey, M. T. (2015). Information, Natural Law, and the Self-Assembly of Rhythmic Movement. London: UK: Routledge.

Latash, M. L. (2010 ). Motor synergies and the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Motor Control, 14(3), 294-322. doi:10.1123/mcj.14.3.294.

Latash, M. L. (2020). On primitives in motor control. Motor Control, 24(2), 318-346. doi:10.1123/mc.2019-0099

MacWilliams, B. A., Choi, T., Perezous, M. K., Chao, E. Y. S., & McFarland, E. G. (1998). Characteristic ground-reaction forces in baseball pitching. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(1), 66-71. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465980260014101

Matsuo, T., Matsumoto, T., Mochizuki, Y., Takada, Y., & Saito, K. (2002). Optimal shoulder abduction angles during baseball pitching from maximal wrist velocity and minimal kinetics viewpoints. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 18, 306-320. doi: 10.1123/jab.18.4.306

Newell, K. M., & Liu, Y.-T. (2021). Collective variables and task constraints in movement coordination, control and skill. Journal of Motor Behavior, 53(6), 770-796. doi:10.1080/00222895.2020.1835799

Oyama, S., & Myers, J. B. (2018). The relationship between the push off ground reaction force and ball speed in high school baseball pitchers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(5), 1324-1328. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001980

Pacheco, M. M., Lafe, C. W., & Newell, K. M. (2019). Search strategies in the perceptual-motor workspace and the acquisition of coordination, control, and skill. Frontires in psychology, 10, 1874. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01874

Putnam, C. A. (1991). A segment interaction analysis of proximal-to-distal sequential segment motion patterns. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(1), 130-144. PMID: 1997807

Remaley, D. T., Fincham, B., McCullough, B., Davis, K., Nofsinger, C., Armstrong, C., & Stausmire, J. M. (2015). Surface electromyography of the forearm musculature during the windmill softball pitch. Orthopaedic Journak of Sports Medicine, 3(1), 2325967114566796. doi:10.1177/2325967114566796

Seroyer, S. T., Nho, S. J., Bach, B. R., Bush-Joseph, C. A., Nicholson, G. P., & Romeo, A. A. (2010). The kinetic chain in overhand pitching: its potential role for performance enhancement and injury prevention. Sports Health, 2(2), 135-146. doi:10.1177/1941738110362656

Stodden, D. F., Fleisig, G. S., McLean, S. P., & Andrews, J. R. (2005). Relationship of biomechanical factors to baseball pitching velocity: Within pitcher variation. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 21, 44-56. doi: 10.1123/jab.21.1.44

Takagi, Y., Oi, T., Tanaka, H., Inui, H., Fujioka, H., Tanaka, J., . . . Nobuhara, K. (2014). Increased horizontal shoulder abduction is associated with an increase in shoulder joint load in baseball pitching. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 23(12), 1757-1762. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2014.03.005




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.18

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.