Test-Retest Reliability and the Learning Effect on Isokinetic Fatigue in Female Master’s Cyclists

Jordan M. Glenn, Michelle Gray, Nicole E. Moyen, Jennifer L. Vincenzo, Kylie K. Harmon, Lee E. Brown


Background: Isokinetic exercise is commonly used as a benchmark for strength and performance. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to establish isokinetic fatigue test-retest reliability and examine the learning effect when testing without familiarization. Methods: 22 masters-aged [53±5 years), competitive female cyclists completed 3 separate 50-repetition knee flexion/extension tests on a Biodex, separated by one-week with no familiarization. Test-retest reliability [intra-class correlation [ICC]), 95% confidence intervals [CI), technical error of measurement [TEM) were calculated. Results: ICCs between trials exhibited excellent reliability during extension [.93–.97) and flexion [.93–.97) for all variables except time to peak torque [ICC=.35 and.45 for extension and flexion, respectively) and fatigue index [ICC=.47 for flexion). Relative TEM was minimal for extension between trial 1 and trial 2 [0.27%–0.97%) and between trial 2 and trial 3 [0.27%–1.45%) for all variables. Similar results were observed for flexion between trial 1 and trial 2 [0.87%–2.45%) and between trial 2 and trial 3 [0.54%–1.10%). No differences [Wilks Λ>.05) existed between trials, indicating no learning effect associated with the tests. Conclusions: There was strong test-retest reliability in masters-aged, female athletes and no learning effect was associated with the Biodex during a knee extension/flexion fatigue protocol.


Muscle Fatigue, Muscle Strength Dynamometer, Athletic Performance, Women, Athletes

Full Text:



Altamirano K.M., Coburn J.W., Brown L.E., Judelson D.A. (2012). Effects of warm up on peak torque, rate of torque development, and electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(5), 1296-1301. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822e7a85

Alvares J., Rodrigues R., Azevedo Franke R., da Silva B., Pinto R., Vaz M., et al. (2015). Inter-machine reliability of the Biodex and Cybex isokinetic dynamometers for knee flexor/extensor isometric, concentric, and eccentric tests. Physical Therapy in Sport, 16(1), 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.04.004

Bagley J.R., McLeland K.A., Arevalo J.A., Brown L.E., Coburn J.W., Galpin A.J. (2016). Skeletal muscle fatigability and myosin heavy chain fiber type in resistance trained men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 602-607. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001759

Brown L.E. (2000). Isokinetics in Human Performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Brown L.E., Weir J.P. (2001). ASEP procedures recommendation I: Accurate assessment of muscular strength and power. JEPonline, 4(3), 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2013.32014

Brown L.E., Whitehurst M., Bryant J.R., Buchalter D.N. (1993). Reliability of the Biodex System 2 isokinetic dynamometer concentric mode. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 3(3), 160-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/IES-1993-3307

Brown L.E., Whitehurst M., Gilbert R., Buchalter, D.N. (1995). The effect of velocity and gender on load range knee extension and flexion exercise on an isokinetic device. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 21(2), 107-112. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1995.21.2.107

Caruso J.F., Brown L.E., Tufano J.J. (2012). The reproducibility of isokinetic dynamometry data. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 20(4), 239-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/IES-2012-0477

Drouin J.M., Valovich-McLeod T.C., Shultz S.J., Gansneder B.M., Perrin D.H. (2004). Reliability and validity of the Biodex System 3 pro isokinetic dynamometer velocity, torque, and position measurements. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91(1), 22-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0933-0

Dugan S.A. (2005). Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: what gives? American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 84(2), 122-130. http://dx.doi.org10.1097/01.PHM.0000154183.40640.93

Feiring D.C., Ellenbecker T.S., Derscheid G.L. (1990). Test-retest reliability of the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 11(7), 298-300.

Frederick-Recascino C.M., Schuster-Smith H. (2003). Competition and intrinsic motivation in physical activity: a comparison of two groups. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(3), 240-254.

Gillet N., Rosnet E. (2008). Basic need satisfaction and motivation in sport. The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 10(3), 1-3.

Glenn J., Gray M., Stewart R., Moyen N.E., Kavouras S., DiBrezzo R., et al. (2015). Incremental effects of 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation on high-intensity cycling performance and blood lactate in masters female cyclists. Amino Acids, 47(12), 2593-2600. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-2050-x

Glenn J., Gray M., Stewart R., Moyen N.E., Kavouras S.A., DiBrezzo R., et al. (2016). Effects of longitudinal beta-alanine supplementation on isokinetic exercise performance and body composition in female masters athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(1), 201-207. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001077

Glenn J., Gray M., Vincenzo J. (2014). Differences in regional adiposity, bone mineral density, and physical exercise participation based on exercise self-efficacy among senior adults. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 55(10), 1166-1173.

Gross M.T., Huffman G.M., Phillips C.N., Wray J.A. (1991). Intramachine and intermachine reliability of the Biodex and Cybex® II for knee flexion and extension peak torque and angular work. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 13(6), 329-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1991.13.6.329

Knobloch K., Yoon U., Vogt P.M. (2008). Acute and overuse injuries correlated to hours of training in master running athletes. Foot & Ankle International, 29(7), 671-676. https://doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2008.0671

Kramer J.F. (1990). Reliability of knee extensor and flexor torques during continuous concentric-eccentric cycles. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71(7), 460-464.

Little C.E., Emery C., Black A., Scott S.H., Meeuwisse W., Nettel-Aguirre A., et al. (2015). Test-retest reliability of KINARM robot sensorimotor and cognitive assessment: in pediatric ice hockey players. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12(78), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-015-0070-0

Louis J., Hausswirth C., Easthope C., Brisswalter J. (2012). Strength training improves cycling efficiency in master endurance athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(2), 631-640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2013-1

Lund H., Søndergaard K., Zachariassen T., Christensen R., Bulow P., Henrisksen M., et al. (2005). Learning effect of isokinetic measurements in healthy subjects, and reliability and comparability of Biodex and Lido dynamometers. Clinical Physiology & Functional Imaging, 25(2), 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2004.00593.x

McKean K.A., Manson N.A., Stanish W.D. (2006). Musculoskeletal injury in the masters runners. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 16(2), 149-154.

McLeland K.A., Ruas C.V., Arevalo J.A., Bagley J.R., Ciccone A.B., Brown L.E., Coburn J.W., Galpin A.J., Malyszek K.K. (2016). Comparison of knee extension concentric fatigue between repetition ranges. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 24(1), 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/IES-150595

Mota J.A., Stock M.S., Carillo E.C., Olinghouse K.D., Drusch A.S., Thompson B.J. (2015). Influence of hamstring fatigue on the estimated percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers for the vastus lateralis. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(12), 3509-3516. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000996

Moyen N.E., Ellis C.L., Ciccone A.B., Thurston T.S., Cochrane K.C., Brown L.E., et al. (2014). Increasing relative humidity impacts low-intensity exercise in the heat. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 85(2), 112-119.

Pearson S.J., Young A., Macaluso A., Devito G., Nimmo M.A., Cobbold M., et al. (2002). Muscle function in elite master weightlifters. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(7), 1199-1206.

Perini T.A., Oliveria G. L.d., Ornellas J.d.S., Oliveira F.P.d. (2005). Technical error of measurement in anthropometry. Rev Bras Med Esporte, 11(1), 81-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922005000100009

Portney L.G. & Watkins M.P. (2000). Foundations of clinical research: applications to practice. (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Prentiss Hall.

So R.C., Ng J.K., Ng G.Y. (2005). Muscle recruitment pattern in cycling: a review. Physical Therapy in Sport, 6(2), 114-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2005.02.004

Symons T.B., Vandervoort A.A., Rice C.L., Overend T.J., Marsh G.D. (2005). Reliability of a single-session isokinetic and isometric strength measurement protocol in older men. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60(1), 114-119.

Tsiros M.D., Grimshaw P.N., Shield A.J., Buckley J.D. (2001). Test-retest reliability of the Biodex System 4 isokinetic dynamometer for knee strength assessment in paediatric populations. Journal of Allied Health, 40(3), 115-119

Wroblewski A.P., Amati F., Smiley M.A., Goodpaster B., Wright V. (2011). Chronic exercise preserves lean muscle mass in masters athletes. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 39(3), 172-178. https://doi.org/10.3810/psm.2011.09.1933

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.6n.4p.1


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2018 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.