Back Squat Potentiates Both Vertical and Horizontal Jump Performance in Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

Cale Bechtel, Joshua A. Cotter, Evan E. Schick

Abstract


Background: Back squats (BSQ) have been shown to transiently improve performance in explosive vertical movements such as the vertical jump (VJ). Still, understanding of this phenomenon, termed post-activation potentiation (PAP), remains nebulous as it relates to explosive horizontal movements. Objective: Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess whether heavy BSQ can potentiate both VJ and horizontal jump (HJ) performance. Method: Nine male ice hockey players from the Long Beach State ice hockey team performed five testing sessions separated by 96-hours. The first testing session consisted of a one repetition maximum (1-RM) BSQ to determine subsequent testing loads. The four subsequent testing sessions, which were randomized for order, consisted of five repetitions of BSQ at 87% 1-RM followed by horizontal jump (BSQ-HJ), five repetitions of BSQ at 87% 1-RM followed by vertical jump (BSQ-VJ), horizontal jump only (CT-HJ) and vertical jump only (CT-VJ). During the potentiated conditions, rest intervals were set at five minutes between the BSQ and either VJ or HJ. Alpha-level was set a priori at 0.05. Results: The results indicate that both vertical (p=0.017) and horizontal (p=0.003) jump were significantly increased (VJ= +5.51cm, HJ= +11.55cm) following a BSQ.  Conclusion: These findings suggest that BSQ may improve both vertical and horizontal jump performance in athletes who participate in sports emphasizing horizontal power, such as ice hockey.


Keywords


Plyometric Exercise; Muscle Strength; Resistance Training; Back Squat; Acute Exercise

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baechle TR, Earle, R.W. (2008) Essentials of Strength and Conditioning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Burkett LN, Phillips WT, Ziuraitis J. (2005) The best warm-up for the vertical jump in college-age athletic men. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 19(3):673-6.

Delavier F. (2010) Strength Training Anatomy. 3rd. ed. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Docherty D, Hodgson MJ. (2007) The application of postactivation potentiation to elite sport. International Journal Of Sports Physiology And Performance 2(4):439-44.

Evetovich TK, Conley DS, McCawley PF. (2015) Postactivation potentiation enhances upper- and lower-body athletic performance in collegiate male and female athletes. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 29(2):336-42.

Glendhill N, & Jannik, V. (2007) Detailed assessment protocols for NHL entry draft players. Toronto, ONT: York University.

Golas A, Maszczyk A, Zajac A, Mikolajec K, Stastny P. (2016) Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports. Journal Of Human Kinetics 52:95-106.

Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Kasimatis P, Mavromatis G, Garas A. (2003) Effect of a submaximal half-squats warm-up program on vertical jumping ability. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 17(2):342-4.

Gullett JC, Tillman MD, Gutierrez GM, Chow JW. (2009) A biomechanical comparison of back and front squats in healthy trained individuals. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 23(1):284-92.

Hodgson M, Docherty D, Robbins D. (2005) Post-activation potentiation: underlying physiology and implications for motor performance. Sports Medicine 35(7):585-95.

Hopkins WG. (2010) Linear models and effect magntidues for research, clinical and practical applications. Sportscience 14:49-57.

Jackson KM, Beach T.A. and Andrews D.M. (2017) The effect of an isometric hip muscle strength training protocol on valgus angle during a drop vertical jump in competitive female volleyball players. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sports Science 5(4):1-9.

Kilduff LP, Owen N, Bevan H, Bennett M, Kingsley MI, Cunningham D. (2008) Influence of recovery time on post-activation potentiation in professional rugby players. Journal Of Sports Sciences 26(8):795-802.

Lakens D. (2013) Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology 4:863.

Nibali ML, Chapman DW, Robergs RA, Drinkwater EJ. (2015) Considerations for determining the time course of post-activation potentiation. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, And Metabolism 40(11):1163-70.

Ojeda AH, Rios LC, Barrilao RG, Serrano PC. (2016) Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 28(3):752-6.

Ray T, Adams, KJ, DeBeliso, M. (2017) The Relationship Between Core Stability & Squat Ratio in Resistance-Trained Males. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sports Science 5(2):7-15.

Reardon D, Hoffman JR, Mangine GT, Wells AJ, Gonzalez AM, Jajtner AR, Townsend JR, McCormack WP, Stout JR, Fragala MS, Fukuda DH. (2014) Do changes in muscle architecture affect post-activation potentiation? Journal Of Sports Science & Medicine 13(3):483-92.

Seitz LB, Haff GG. (2016) Factors Modulating Post-Activation Potentiation of Jump, Sprint, Throw, and Upper-Body Ballistic Performances: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine 46(2):231-40.

Seitz LB, Mina MA, Haff GG. (2016) Postactivation Potentiation of Horizontal Jump Performance Across Multiple Sets of a Contrast Protocol. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 30(10):2733-40.

Tillin NA, Bishop D. (2009) Factors modulating post-activation potentiation and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activities. Sports Medicine 39(2):147-66.

Tobin DP, Delahunt E. (2014) The acute effect of a plyometric stimulus on jump performance in professional rugby players. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 28(2):367-72.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.6n.1p.26

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2018 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.