Accuracy of the Positioning Systems for the Tracking of Alzheimer's Patients - A Review

Omid Toutian Esfahani, Ata Jahangir Moshayedi


Robotic revolution made the position monitoring systems become more and more demanding in the industry. Knowing the position of an object will help for the better navigation as well as control of systems. This review is about the current position monitoring systems with an overlook of their applications in helping Alzheimer's patients. Here we have included the indoor and outdoor methods and the comparison between the common methods used in position monitoring systems. A list of various methods used for the position monitoring has been included in the conclusion section based on their accuracy and cost.

Full Text:



C. Reitz, C. Brayne, and R. Mayeux, "Epidemiology of Alzheimer disease," Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 137–152, 2011.

M. Citron, "Alzheimer’s disease: strategies for disease modification," Nature reviews Drug discovery, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 387–398, 2010.

V. Drago, C. Babiloni, D. Bartrés-Faz, A. Caroli, B. Bosch, T. Hensch, M. Didic, H.-W. Klafki, M. Pievani, J. Jovicich et al., "Disease tracking markers for Alzheimer’s disease at the prodromal (MCI) stage," Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 26, pp. 159–199, 2011.

H. Koyuncu and S. H. Yang, "A survey of indoor positioning and object locating systems," IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 121–128, 2010.

K. Curran, E. Furey, T. Lunney, J. Santos, D. Woods, and A. McCaughey, "An evaluation of indoor location determination technologies," Journal of Location Based Services, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 61–78, 2011.

E. Furey, K. Curran, and P. Mc Kevitt, "HABITS: A history a ware based Wi-Fi in door tracking system," in In Proc. of the 9th Annual PostGraduate Symposium on The Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting (PGNET-08), 2008, pp. 224–229.

R. Want, A. Hopper, V. Falcao, and J. Gibbons, "The active badge location system," ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 91–102, 1992.

M. Hazas and A. Hopper, "Broadband ultrasonic location systems for improved indoor positioning," Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 536–547, 2006.

N. B. Priyantha, "The cricket indoor location system," Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.

Y. Fukuju, M. Minami, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, "DOLPHIN: An autonomous indoor positioning system in ubiquitous computing environment." in WSTFEUS, 2003, pp. 53–56.

M. Minami, Y. Fukuju, K. Hirasawa, S. Yokoyama, M. Mizumachi, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, "DOLPHIN: a practical approach for implementing a fully distributed indoor ultrasonic positioning system," in UbiComp 2004: Ubiquitous Computing. Springer, 2004, pp. 347–365.

B.-G. Lee, Y.-S. Lee, and W.-Y. Chung, "3D navigation real time RSSI-based indoor tracking application," JUCT: Journal of Ubiquitous Convergence Technology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 67–77, 2008.

E. E. L. Lau and W. Y. Chung, "Enhanced RSSI-based real-time user location tracking system for indoor and outdoor environments," in Convergence Information Technology, 2007. International Conference on. IEEE, 2007, pp. 1213–1218.

A. J. Moshayedi and D. C. Gharpure, "Development of position monitoring system for studying performance of wind tracking algorithms," in Robotics; Proceedings of ROBOTIK 2012; 7th German Conference on. VDE, 2012, pp. 1–4.

P. Bahl and V. N. Padmanabhan, "User location and tracking in an in-building radio network," Technical Report MSR-TR-99-12, Microsoft Research, Tech. Rep., 1999.

R. Merz, F. Chastellain, A. Blatter, C. Botteron, and P.-A. Farine, "An experimental platform for an indoor location and tracking system," in European Navigation Conference, Toulouse, France, 2008.

S. A. Weis, "RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): Principles and applications," 2007.

L. M. Ni, Y. Liu, Y. C. Lau, and A. P. Patil, "LANDMARC: indoor location sensing using active RFID," Wireless networks, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 701–710, 2004.

J. Hightower, R. Want, and G. Borriello, "SpotON: An indoor 3D location sensing technology based on RF signal strength," UW CSE 00-02-02, University of Washington, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seattle, WA, vol. 1, 2000.

J. Krumm, S. Harris, B. Meyers, B. Brumitt, M. Hale, and S. Shafer, "Multi-camera multi-person tracking for easyliving," in Visual Surveillance, 2000. Proceedings. Third IEEE International Workshop on. IEEE, 2000, pp. 3–10.

E. D. Kaplan and C. J. Hegarty, Understanding GPS: principles and applications. Artech house, 2005.

M. S. Grewal, L. R. Weill, and A. P. Andrews, Global positioning systems, inertial navigation, and integration. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

A. Fuad, M. Ridhwan, and M. Drieberg, "Remote vehicle tracking system using GSM modem and google map," in Sustainable Utilization and Development in Engineering and Technology (CSUDET), 2013 IEEE Conference on. IEEE, 2013, pp. 15–19.

G. Hein, M. Paonni, V. Kropp, and A. Teuber, "GNSS indoors, fighting the fading," Part I. Marzo-Abril de, 2008.

R. J. Czerniak and J. P. Reilly, Applications of GPS for surveying and other positioning needs in departments of transportation. Transportation Research Board, 1998, vol. 258.

K. Ozsoy, A. Bozkurt, and I. Tekin, "Indoor positioning based on global positioning system signals," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1091–1097, 2013.

J. Hightower, A. LaMarca, and I. E. Smith, "Practical lessons from place lab," Pervasive Computing, IEEE, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 32–39, 2006.

F. Van Diggelen and C. Abraham, "Indoor GPS technology," CTIA Wireless-Agenda, Dallas, 2001.

A. LaMarca, Y. Chawathe, S. Consolvo, J. Hightower, I. Smith, J. Scott, T. Sohn, J. Howard, J. Hughes, F. Potter et al., "Place lab: Device positioning using radio beacons in the wild," in Pervasive computing. Springer, 2005, pp. 116–133.

C.-C. Lin, M.-J. Chiu, C.-C. Hsiao, R.-G. Lee, and Y.-S. Tsai, "Wireless health care service system for elderly with dementia," Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 696–704, 2006.

S. Lee, H. Shin, R. Ha, and H. Cha, "IEEE 802.15. 4a CSSbased mobile object locating system using sequential Monte Carlo method," Computer Communications, vol. 38, pp. 13–25, 2014.

S. TamilSelvan and M. K. Thangaraj, "Effective range-free localization scheme for wireless sensor network," International journal, 2014.

M. D’Souza, M. Ros, and M. Karunanithi, "An indoor localisation and motion monitoring system to determine behavioural activity in dementia afflicted patients in aged care," 2012.

A. Schwarzmeier, J. Besser, R. Weigel, G. Fischer, and D. Kissinger, "A compact back-plaster sensor node for dementia and Alzheimer patient care," in Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2014 IEEE. IEEE, 2014, pp. 75–78.

T. Hori, Y. Nishida, and S. Murakami, "Pervasive sensor system for evidence-based nursing care support," in Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2006, pp. 1680–1685.

W. Kang, S. Nam, Y. Han, and S. Lee, "Improved heading estimation for smartphone-based indoor positioning systems," in Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on. IEEE, 2012, pp. 2449–2453.

J. Geddes and K. Warwick, "Cloud based global positioning system as a safety monitor for dementia patients," in Cybernetic Intelligent Systems (CIS), 2010 IEEE 9th International Conference on. IEEE, 2010, pp. 1–6.

Y. Chen, J. Liu, A. Jaakkola, J. Hyyppa, L. Chen, H. Hyyppa, T. Jian, and R. Chen, "Knowledge-based indoor positioning based on LiDAR aided multiple sensors system for UGVs," in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium-PLANS 2014, 2014 IEEE/ION. IEEE, 2014, pp. 109–114.

Z. Siddiqui, A. H. Abdullah, M. K. Khan, and A. S. Alghamdi, "Smart environment as a service: Three factor cloud based user authentication for telecare medical information system," Journal of medical systems, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2014.

H.-L. Nguyen, E. Castelli, T.-K. Dao, V.-T. Nguyen, and T.-T. Pham, "Multimodal combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID and step count for user localization," in Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications. Springer, 2014, pp. 675–681.

S. Higuera de Frutos and M. Castro, "Using smartphones as a very low-cost tool for road inventories," Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 38, pp. 136–145, 2014.

F. Sposaro, J. Danielson, and G. Tyson, "iWander: an android application for dementia patients," in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. IEEE, 2010, pp. 3875–3878.

J. Maeso Garcia, F. Jorge Hernandez, B. GarciaZapirain Soto, A. Mendez Zorrilla, B. Fernandez-Ruanova, A. Alday Jurado, and J. Llano Hernaiz, "Teleassistance outdoor system for the elderly based on android devices," in Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 2013, pp. 000 009–000 014.

D. M. West, "Improving health care through mobile medical devices and sensors," Brookings Institution Policy Report, 2013.

P. Borwankar and G. Kulkarni, "Biological parameter monitoring using android smartphone," 2014.

S. H. Ahmed, A. Sayakkara, G. Kim, and D. Kim, "Selforganized e-health application using IEEE 11703: An experimental approach," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 32, pp. 876–881, 2014.

S. A. Tuncer and A. Alkan, "Abdominal image segmentation on android based mobile devices," in Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2014 22nd. IEEE, 2014, pp. 806–809.

E. Sourla, A. Tsakalidis, and G. Tzimas, "Proposing a novel monitoring and early notification system for heart diseases," in Information Technology in Bio-and Medical Informatics. Springer, 2013, pp. 88–102.

M. M. H. Lahr, P. C. A. J. Vroomen, G. J. Luijckx, D. J. Zee, R. Vos, and E. Buskens, "Prehospital factors determining regional variation in thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke," International Journal of Stroke, 2014.

C. Lambert, S. Vinson, F. Shofer, and J. Brice, "The relationship between knowledge and risk for heart attack and stroke," Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 996–1001, 2013.

D. Heckerman, A tutorial on learning with Bayesian networks. Springer, 1998.

I. Bokun and K. Zielinski, "Active badges – the next generation," October 1998, [Accessed: 2014-05-30]. [Online]. Available:

"The cricket indoor location system," March 2006, [Accessed: 2014-05-30]. [Online]. Available:

"Gps satellite constellation," September 2014, [Accessed: 2014-09-25]. [Online]. Available:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2017 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.