Pattern of Mosquito Borne Parasitic Infection in the Night Blood Samples of Patients with Elevated TNF-α of> 5.0 pg/ml

Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Tolulope Busayo Ojediran, Donatus Fn Ozuruoke


Study Background: Plasmodium spp., (Protozoan) and Wuchereria bancrofti (Nematode) are transmitted by mosquitos to cause insect borne diseases known as malaria and Lymphatic filariasis/Elephantiasis. Apart from the social implication of these parasitic infections the infections can also elicit immune responses. Aim and Objective: This work was therefore designed to determine the pattern of mosquito borne parasitic infection in the night blood samples of patients with elevated TNF-α of > 5.0 pg/ml. Materials and Methods: Seventy (70; aged 31 – 76 years; Male- 35; Female-35) volunteers with plasma TNFα of 5.8 ±0.7 pg/including age-matched control participants ( n= 50 ; TNFα of 2.2 ± 0.3 pg/ml). All participants were negative to Acid Fast Bacilli, ant-HCV, HBsAg and HIV tests were recruited for the study. Night blood samples and sputum samples were obtained from the participants. Blood sample was used for determination of TNFα, HIVp24ag-Ab, anti-HCV, HBsAg by ELISA and identification of Plasmodium and Wuchereria by Geimsha thick blood film staining while sputum samples were used for the demonstration of Acid Fast Bacilli by Ziehl Neelsen staining. Results: The results showed a frequency of Plasmodium spp., in individuals with plasma TNF-α of 5.8 ±0.7 pg/ml as 31.4%(22) as against a frequency of 18%(9) in subjects with plasma TNF-α of 2.2 ± 0.3 pg/ml.. The results also showed a frequency of 5.71%(4) and2%(1) Wuchereria bancrofti in subjects with plasma TNF-α of 5.8 ±0.7 pg/ml and TNF-α of 2.2 ± 0.3 pg/ml. respectively. The overall frequency of parasitic infection obtained in both test and control subjects include: 33.3% (40)Plasmodium spp., and 4.2%(5) Wuchereria bancrofti.The overall results from both test and control subjects also showed a gender distribution of 20%(24) and 13.3%(16) Plasmodium spp.,in female and males respectively while a distribution of 1.7%(2) and 2.5%(3) Wuchereria bancrofti in females and males respectively. Conclusion: This work revealed increase in the frequency of Plasmodium spp. and Wuchereria bancrofti infections with increase in plasma TNF-α while the overall frequency of parasitic infection obtained in both test and control subjects was found to be 33.3% (40)Plasmodium spp., and 4.2%(5) Wuchereria bancrofti with possible variations in regional and gender distributions. Mosquito borne parasitic infection of Plasmodium spp., was found to be more prevalent in patients with elevated TNF-α of> 5.0 pg/ml.


Mosquito Borne Parasitic Infection, Night Blood Samples, TNF-α > 5.0 pg/ml

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