Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus Infection: A Review of the Literature

Servet Kayhan, Halit Çınarka, Aziz Gümüş, Ünal Şahin

Abstract


Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. On 18 March 2009, A novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was seen in Mexico, then a global outbreak of respiratory illness started. The new H1N1 virus usually attaches to tracheobronchial epithelial cells and the clinical picture ranges from transient lower respiratory tract infections to severe pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The main complication is extension of viral infection to the alveoli that causes primary viral pneumonia. The most common radiologic findings are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities and multifocal areas of consolidations Bacterial coinfections, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, increase the severity of illness. Patients with underlying cardiopulmonary comorbid conditions, pregnancy and obesity appear to be at higher risk of severe pneumonia. The severe cases have required admission to intensive care units and needs to mechanical ventilation. H1N1 influenza virus is now in post-pandemic period; however, localized outbreaks of various magnitudes are being reported.


Keywords: H1N1; influenza; pandemic; pneumonia

 


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References


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