Evaluation of the Factors Affecting the Elementary Teachers’ Exhilaration

Amin Ghaffari, Shirin Maleki, Safar Ali Sadeghi, Ferdos Montazeralzohour, Mohammad Taghi Mahmoudi, Aghil Shojaee, Pooria Sarvghadi


The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting exhilaration and their association with happiness of school elementary teachers in Shahrekord, Iran. The study population consisted of all elementary school teachers in Shahre-kord, Iran. 203 elementary teachers were surveyed through random sampling and using Morgan’s table. The data were collected by means of the self-made questionnaire covering factors affecting the exhilaration and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Result of this study indicated that the best predictors of exhilaration are economic factors, gathering, office hours, evaluation, and active teaching methodology. Based on beta coefficient, with 1% increase in teachers’ gathering, exhilaration increased by 0.308, office hours by 0.335, evaluation by 0.201, active teaching methodology by 0.202, and economic factors by 0.174. We found that the Ministry of Education should pay special attention to the mentioned items in order to increase the students’ self-confidence, efficiency, social and individual skills, and quality of life.


Exhilaration, Elementary School Teacher, Quality of Life, Happiness, Job Satisfaction

Full Text:



Brown GC. The Exhilaration of Overseas Leadership. School Administrator. 2009;66(3):30-1.

Argyle M. Psychology of Happiness. translated by Masoud Gohari Anaraki and colleagues. Isfahan: University Jihad Publication, Isfahan Branch. 2004.

Bullough RV. Hope, happiness, teaching, and learning. New Understandings of Teacher's Work: Springer; 2011. p. 15-30.

Hohr H. The concept of experience by John Dewey revisited: Conceiving, feeling and “enliving”. Studies in Philosophy and Education. 2013;32(1):25-38.

Chang M-L. An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational psychology review. 2009;21(3):193-218.

Keller MM, Chang M-L, Becker ES, Goetz T, Frenzel AC. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study. Frontiers in psychology. 2014;5:1442.

Beilock SL, Gunderson EA, Ramirez G, Levine SC. Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2010;107(5):1860-3.

Tentama F, Pranungsari D. The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the Organizational Commitment in Extraordinary Schools. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. 2016;5(1):39-45.

Jennings PA, Greenberg MT. The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of educational research. 2009;79(1):491-525.

Lombas AS, Jiménez TI, Arguís-Rey R, Hernández-Paniello S, Valdivia-Salas S, Martín-Albo J. Impact of the Happy Classrooms Programme on Psychological Well-being, School Aggression, and Classroom Climate. Mindfulness. 2019:1-19.

Carter PJ, Hore B, McGarrigle L, Edwards M, Doeg G, Oakes R, et al. Happy thoughts: Enhancing well-being in the classroom with a positive events diary. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2018;13(2):110-21.

Argyle M, Martin M, Crossland J. Happiness as a function of personality and social encounters. Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective. 1989:189-203.

Hills P, Argyle M. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and individual differences. 2002;33(7):1073-82.

Boyce CJ, Brown GD, Moore SC. Money and happiness: Rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction. Psychological Science. 2010;21(4):471-5.

Cassedy A, Drotar D, Ittenbach R, Hottinger S, Wray J, Wernovsky G, et al. The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2013;11(1):99.

Knight J, Gunatilaka R. Does economic growth raise happiness in China? Oxford Development Studies. 2011;39(01):1-24.

Kavenuke P. What is it that keeps good teachers in the teaching profession: A reflection on teacher retention. Academic Research International. 2013;4(1):165.

Honda K. Happy Money: The Japanese Art of Making Peace with Your Money: Gallery Books; 2019.

Dehnavi N, Ahmadi M, Abedi S. The Relationship Between Happiness and School Factors in High School Students. Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology. 2004:20-19.

Mitchell MM, Bradshaw CP, Leaf PJ. Student and teacher perceptions of school climate: A multilevel exploration of patterns of discrepancy. Journal of school health. 2010;80(6):271-9.

Roberts HE, Foti RJ. Evaluating the interaction between self-leadership and work structure in predicting job satisfaction. Journal of business and psychology. 1998;12(3):257-67.

Hur WM, Kim BS, Park SJ. The relationship between coworker incivility, emotional exhaustion, and organizational outcomes: The mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries. 2015;25(6):701-12.

DeNeve KM, Cooper H. The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological bulletin. 1998;124(2):197.

Haghighatian M, Moradi G. The Role of Social Capital in Work Satisfaction (Case: The Staff of Cooperative Organization of Kermanshah Province). Journal of Applied Sociology. 2011;22(4):115-30.

Shannon AR. The relationship between organized recreational programs and job satisfaction/retention in the United States Navy. 2004.


Atjonen P. Teachers’ views of their assessment practice. Curriculum Journal. 2014;25(2):238-59.

Subia GS. Think Like My Teacher (TLMT): A New Method in Assessing Millennial Learners. International Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;3(1.2018):57-61.

Naudé OF. Skilled staff's job characteristics, job satisfaction and intentions to quit in a petrochemical company: North-West University; 2010.

Saari LM, Judge TA. Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management. 2004;43(4):395-407.

Lackritz JR. Exploring burnout among university faculty: incidence, performance, and demographic issues. Teaching and teacher education. 2004;20(7):713-29.

Mozayan M, Rezaee M, Kalantari M, Tabatabaee SM. A Survey On Burnout And Related Factors Among Occupational Therapists In Iran. Rehabilitation Medicine. 2012;1(1):34-41.

GUILLOTEAUX MJ, DÖRNYEI Z. Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation. TESOL Quarterly. 2008;42(1):55-77.

Reeve J, Jang H, Carrell D, Jeon S, Barch J. Enhancing students' engagement by increasing teachers' autonomy support. Motivation and emotion. 2004;28(2):147-69.

Turner JC, Patrick H. Motivational influences on student participation in classroom learning activities. Teachers College Record. 2004;106(9):1759-85.

Anghelache V. Motivation for the teaching career. Preliminary study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;128:49-53.

Easterlin RA. Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence. In: David PA, Reder MW, editors. Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Academic Press; 1974. p. 89-125.

Fuentes N, Rojas M. Economic theory and subjective well-being: Mexico. Social Indicators Research. 2001;53(3):289-314.

Caporale GM, Georgellis Y, Tsitsianis N, Yin YP. Income and happiness across Europe: Do reference values matter? Journal of Economic Psychology. 2009;30(1):42-51.

Hemmati R. The Sense of Happiness and its Academic Determinants (Case Study: Female Students of University of Isfahan). International Review of Economics Education. 2019;1(4):20-45.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.abcmed.v.8n.3p.16


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine