The Comparison of learning radiographic extraoral landmarks through two methods

Tahmineh Razi, Alireza Sighari Deljavan


Objectives: The long time interval between teaching anatomy courses to students and the courses on extraoral radiographs results in forgetting the location of radiographic anatomic landmarks without any retention; therefore, it is necessary to use other educational techniques due to short duration of educational courses. To this end, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a combination of lectures and computer techniques on teaching extraoral radiographs to undergraduate dental students. Methods: In the present interventional study, dental students entering the university in the same year (referred to as one class) were divided into two groups; one group received conventional teaching and one group received combinational teaching technique. Students entering the next year were taught using the same teaching techniques. The results were compared between groups and classes. Results: Comparison of the results of the first test between the two classes showed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.001). Comparison of the results of the second test between the two classes revealed no significant differences in the conventional method (P=0.76); however, the combination technique exhibited significant differences (P=0.006). In the first test, comparison of the two techniques in the students entering the university in 2006 showed no significant differences (P=0.055); however, students entering the university in 2007 exhibited significant differences (P=0.03). In the second test, comparison of the two techniques in both classes revealed significant differences (P<0.001). Conclusion: If more time is allocated to the combination technique, learning improves even in a short time. This method can replace the conventional method to teach interpretation of extraoral radiographs after evaluation of academic level of the studies.


Computer-assisted learning; extra-oral radiography; lecture;

Full Text:



White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology and Interpretation. 6th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2009. pp 191

Walmsley D. CAL programs in orthodontics elicit positive responses from students. Evidence- Based Dentistry 2006;7:77.

Rosenberg H, Grad HA, Matear DW. The effectiveness of computer-aided, self-instructional programs in dental education: a systematic review of the literature. J Dent Educ 2003;67:524-32.

Jeffries PR. Computer versus lecture: a comparison of two methods of teaching oral medication administration in a nursing skills laboratory. J Nurs Educ 2001;40:323-9.

Jenkins S, Goel R, Morrell DS. Computer-assisted instruction versus traditional lecture for medical student teaching of dermatology morphology: a randomized control trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;59:255-9.

.Al-Jewair TS, Qutub AF, Malkhassian G, Dempster LJ. A systematic review of computer-assisted learning in endodontics education. J Dent Educ 2010;74:601-11.

Nance ET, Lanning SK, Gunsolley JC. Dental anatomy carving computer-assisted instruction program: an assessment of student performance and perceptions. J Dent Educ 2009;73:972-9.

Bissell V, McKerlie RA, Kinane DF, McHugh S. Teaching periodontal pocket charting to dental students: a comparison of computer assisted learning and traditional tutorials. Br Dent J 2003;195:333-6.

Rosenberg H, Posluns J, Tenenbaum HC, Tompson B, Locker D. Evaluation of computer-aided learning in orthodontics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010;138:410-9.

Ludlow JB, Platin E. A comparison of Web page and slide/tape for instruction in periapical and panoramic radiographic anatomy. J Dent Educ 2000;64:269-75.

Howerton WB Jr, Platin E, Ludlow J, Tyndall DA. The influence of computer-assisted instruction on acquiring early skills in intraoral radiography. J Dent Educ 2002;66:1154-8.

Rosenberg H, Sander M, Posluns J. The effectiveness of computer-aided learning in teaching orthodontics: a review of the literature. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005;127:599-605.

Tan PL, Hay DB, Whaites E. Implementing e-learning in a radiological science course in dental education: a short-term longitudinal study. J Dent Educ 2009;73:1202-12.

Davis J, Crabb S, Rogers E, Zamora J, Khan K. Computer-based teaching is as good as face to face lecture-based teaching of evidence based medicine: a randomized controlled trial. Med Teach 2008;30:302-7.

Baghdady MT, Pharoah MJ, Regehr G, Lam EW, Woods NN. The role of basic sciences in diagnostic oral radiology. J Dent Educ 2009;73:1187-93.

Al-Jewair TS, Azarpazhooh A, Suri S, Shah PS. Computer-assisted learning in orthodontic education: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent Educ 2009;73:730-9.

Potomkova J, Mihal V, Cihalik C. Web-based instruction and its impact on the learning activity of medical students: a review. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2006;150:357-61.

Lieberman G, Abramson R, Volkan K, McArdle PJ. Tutor versus computer: a prospective comparison of interactive tutorial and computer assisted instruction in radiology education. Acad Radiol 2002;9:40-9.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine