Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Zirconia, Titanium Alloy and some other Restorative Materials: “An in-vitro Study”

Ezzatollah Jalalian, Shahbaz Naser Mostofi, Elnaz Shafiee, Amin Nourizadeh, Reihaneh Aghajani Nargesi, Sarah Ayremlou


Introduction: Bacterial adhesion on restorative materials may lead to gingival inflammation and secondary caries.

Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the adhesion of streptococcus mutans to zirconia, Feldespatic porcelain, titanium alloy and Indirect composite resin In-vitro. The effect of surface roughness on bacterial adhesion was also studied.

Materials and Methods: 10 specimens (5mm diameter, 1mm thickness) of each material, Zirconia, Indirect composite resin, Titanium alloy and Feldespatic porcelain were fabricated. Enamel was used as reference. Specimens were covered with artificial saliva and bacterial suspension (109 CFU/mL). Bacterial adhesion was determined using scanning electron microscope and culturing the specimens in blood agar. Data were analyzed with One way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test for roughness and Kruskal-wallis test for adhesion values.

Results: The highest bacterial adhesion was recorded for composite specimens and the lowest was seen in Ziconia group (p<0.5). The mean value of adhesion for zirconia, feldespatic peocelain, Titanium alloy and indirect composite were 28±6.32, 40.80±8.40, 75±4.47 and 386±13.75, respectively. The differences between zirconia and titanium alloy and also zirconia and indirect composite and porcelain and indirect composite were statistically significant (p<0.5).

Conclusion: Zirconia showed the lowest bacterial adhesion in comparison to other tested materials and Enamel. The difference between zirconia and titanium alloy and also zirconia and indirect composite was statistically significant (p<0.5). No correlation was found between surface roughness and bacterial adhesion.


Keywords: Bacterial adhesions; Streptococcus mutans; Dental caries

Full Text:



Auschill TM, Arweiler NB, Brex M, Reich E, Seulan A, Netuschil L.The effect of dental restorative materials on dental biofilm. Eur J Oral Sci 2002; 110: 48-53.

Lippo VJ , Garoushi S, Tanner J.Adhesion of streptococcus mutans to fiber – Rein forced filling composite and coventionad Restorative Materials, J Dentistry: 2009;3:227-232.

Byung CL, Yong Jung MG, Kim DJ, Han JS.Initial Bacterial adhesion on resin, titanium and zirconia in vitro. J Adv Prosthodont 2011; 3: 81-4.

Zortuk M, kesim S, kaya E. Bacterial adhesion of porphyromonas Gingivalis.Dent Res J 2010; 7(1): 35-40.

Eick S, Glockman E.Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to various restorative materials in a continuous flow system. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2004;31; 278–85.

Meier R, Gerspace HH, Meyer LJ.Adhesion of oral streptococci to all-ceramics dental restorative materials in vitro. J Mater Sci: 2008;19: 3249 –53.

Rocha S, Bernardi A, Pizzolitto A, Adabo G, Pizalitto E.Steptococcus mutans Attachment on a Cast Titanium Surface. Materials Resarch 2009:12(1):41-44.

Lee B, Kim Y, shinj. Surface modification by Alkali & heat treatment in titanium alloy.J Biomedical Research 2002; 61: 466-73.

Aykent F , Gunal S, Avunduk M, Ozkan S.Effect of different finishing techniques for restorative materials on surface roughness and bacterial adhesion,J Prosthet Dent 2010;103:221-227.

Steinberg D, Eyal S. Early formation of Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm on various dental restorative materials. J Dent 2002;30:47-51.

Busscher HJ, Rinastiti M.Biofilm formation on Dental restorative and Implant Materials; J Dent Res2010; 7: 657-665.

Heyman H, Swift E,Sturdevant C. Sturdivant`s art and science of operative dentistry, 5th ed. 2006. p.220.

Meier R, Gerspace HH, Meyer LJ.Adhesion of oral streptococci to all-ceramics dental restorative materials in vitro. J Mater Sci: 2008;19: 3249 –53.

Rosentritt M, Hahnel S.Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Various Dental Materials in a Laminar Flow Chamber System. J Biomed Mater Res2007; 36-44.

Scarno A, Piattelli M, Caputi S, Favero GA, Pattelli A. Bacterial Adhesion on Commercially Pure Titanium and Zirconium Oxide Disks: An vivo human study. J Periodontal 2004;75:292-296.

Rosentritt M, Behr M, Burgers R, Feilzer AJ .In Vitro Adherence of Oral Streptococci to Zirconia Core and Veneering Glass-Ceramics,J Biomaterials Research 2009;91:257-63.

Mabbaux F, Ponsonnet L, Morrier JJ, Jaffrezic N, Barsotti O. Surface free energy and bacterial retention to saliva-coated dental implant materials - an in vitro study. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2004;39:199–205.

Sardin S, Morrier JJ, Benay G, Barsotti O. In vitro streptococcal adherence on prosthetic and implant materials. Interactions with physicochemical surface properties. J Oral Rehabil 2004;31:140–148.

Grivet M J. Morrier G, Benay O. Effect of hydrophobicity on invitro streptococc adhesion to dental alloy, J Mat Science 2000;12 :637-642.

Friedl KH, Hiller KA, Schmalz G. Placement and replacement of composite restorations in Germany. Oper Dent 1995;20:34-38.

Konishi N, Torii Y, Kurosaki A, Takatsuka T,Itota T, Yoshiyama M. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis of early plaque formed on resin composite and human enamel. J Oral Rehabil 2003;30:790-5.

Blank JT. Scientifically based rationale and protocol for use of modern indirect resin inlays and onlays. J Esthet Dent 2000;12:195-208.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine