Fourth Grade Primary School Students’ Critical Writing Skill Levels

Tufan Bitir, Erol Duran


In this study, it was aimed to determine the critical writing skill levels of fourth grade Primary School students. This study is a quantitative research and was designed in a scanning pattern. The study group of the research consists of 175 students attending in the fourth grade of three different Primary Schools, which were determined by the purposive sampling method, by taking into account their gender and socioeconomic status. The research data were obtained as a result of the evaluation of the critical writings written by the students in the study group with using the critical writing rubric. The obtained data were presented as descriptive statistics (frequency, min. and max. values, arithmetic mean, standard deviation) with the help of statistical program, and analyzed with independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). As a result of the research, it was determined that the students’ scores on critical writing skills were generally at a low level. In general, students are insufficient in the dimensions of planning, presenting evidence and persuading, questioning, and multidimensional thinking of critical writing; fluency and clarity and shape/form dimensions were found to be sufficient. In addition, it was determined that student achievements differed significantly according to socioeconomic level (in favor of high socioeconomic level) and gender (in favor of female students).


Writing, Critical Writing, Critical Thinking, Rubric, Primary School Students

Full Text:



Ağın Haykır, H. (2012). The relationship between reading comprehension skills and written expression skills of 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary school students (Unpublished Master Thesis). Ahi Evran University, Social Sciences Institute, Kırşehir.

Akınoğlu, O. (2001). The effect of science teaching based on critical thinking skills on learning products (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara.

Aktaş, T., & Doğan, Ö. K. (2018). The effect of argument-based inquiry teaching on 7th grade students’ academic achievement and argumentation levels. Journal of Mersin University Faculty of Education, 14(2), 778-798.

Akyol, H. (2001). Turkish teaching methods. Pegem Publishing.

Akyol, H. (2008). Turkish primary reading and writing teaching (7th ed.). Pegem Publishing.

Alan, Y. (1994). Language and people. TÖV Publishing.

Argamon, S., Koppel, M., Fine, J., &Shimoni, A. R. (2003). Gender, genre, and writing style in formal written texts. Text & Talk, 23(3), 321-346.

Arıcı, A. F., & Ungan, S. (2008). Evaluation of written expression studies of primary school second level students from some aspects, Dumlupınar University Journal of Social Sciences, 20, 317-328.

Ataşçi, A. (2020). Primary school Turkish-4 textbook. Koza Publishing.

Aydoğan, Y., & Koçak, N. (2003). Examination of the factors affecting the language development of preschool children. Journal of National Education, 159, 76-81.

Bahşi, N., & Sis, N. (2019). Variables that affect secondary school students’ level of sentence, paragraph and text formation. Journal of Mother Tongue Education, 7(3), 553-573.

Baş, G., & Şahin, C. (2013). Examination of primary school students’ writing dispositions in terms of different variables. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 3(1), 32-42.

Başkan, A. (2019). Examination of seventh grade students’ ability to write narrative texts in terms of various variables. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 19(2), 453-467.

Beyer, B. K. (1983). Common Sense about teaching thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 41(3), 44-49.

Byrne, D. (1988). Teaching writing skills. Longman.

Calp, M. (2010). Teaching Turkish as a special education field. Şükran Calp (Ed.). Nobel Publishing.

Coşkun, E. (2014). Writing training. In A. Kırkkılıç, & H. Akyol, (Ed.), Turkish teaching in primary education (pp. 49- 91). Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Covey, S. R. (2006). Seven habits of effective people. Osman & Filiz Nayır Deniztekin (Trans.). (29th ed.). Varlık Publishing.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Introduction to mixed methods research. Mustafa Sözbilir (Trans.). Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Çelik, M. E. (2012). Evaluation of primary school eighth grade students› written expression skills in terms of different variables. Turkology Studies, 32(32), 13-31.

Dal, S. (2015). Critical Literacy Practices in Primary 5th Grade Turkish Lesson: An Action Research (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Institute of Education Sciences, Eskişehir.

Daly, J., & Miller, M. (1975). The empirical development of an instrument to measure writing apprehension. Research in The Teaching of English, 9(3), 242-249.

Demir, T. (2011). Evaluation of the relationship between primary school students’ creative writing skills and their perception of writing self-efficacy and achievement goal orientation types (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Gazi University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

Demirel, Ö. (2003). Turkish teaching. Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Demirel, Ö., & Şahinel, M. (2006). Teaching Turkish for Turkish and classroom teachers. (7th Edition). Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Deniz, H., & Demir, S. (2020). The relationship between students’ writing anxiety and their writing disposition. Journal of Erzincan University Faculty of Education, 22(1), 124-144.

Ekici, D. İ. (2017). Examining the factors affecting secondary school students’ perceptions of scientific inquiry skills. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 25(2), 497-516.

Espin, C. A., Weissenburger, J. W., & Benson, B. J. (2004). Assessing the writing performance of students in special education. Exceptionality, 12(1), 55-66.

Evans, J. (2001). Introduction: learning and teaching the complexities of writing. In Janet Evans (Ed.), writing in the elementary classroom: A reconsideration. Heinemann.

Flower, L., & Hayes J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communitation, 32(4), 365- 387.

Gençtürk, H. A., & Türkmen, L. (2007). A study on inquiry method and effectiveness in primary school 4th grade science lesson. Journal of Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty, 27(1), 277-292.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2000). The role of self-regulation and transcription skills in writing and writing development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 3-12.

Göçer, A. (2005). Measurement and evaluation in Turkish teaching at the second level of primary education (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Atatürk University, Institute of Social Sciences, Erzurum.

Göçer, A. (2010). Writing education in Turkish teaching. Journal of International Social Research, 3(12), 178-195.

Güney, N. (2016). Teachers’ thoughts on writing education. International Journal of Turkish Literature, Culture and Education (TEKE), 5(2), 970-985.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L. H., & Saddler, B. (2002). Developing self-regulated writers. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 110-115.

Huber, E. (2010). The Effect of Communication skill on language skill. Language Journal, 135, 7-21.

Karabay, A. (2013). The effect of critical writing education on the writing academic achievement and critical writing levels of Turkish teacher candidates. Turkish Studies, 8(9), 1729-1743.

Karaca, S. (2019). Evaluation of written expression skills of secondary school students. Eleşkirt/Ağrı example (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ağrı.

Karasar, N. (2012). Scientific research method. Nobel Publishing.

Karatay, H. (2011). Writing training. Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Kılınç, A., &Tok, M. (2012). Teaching Turkish as a foreign language. In A. Kılınç, & A. Şahin (Eds.), Teaching Turkish as a foreign language (pp. 255-280). Pegem Akademi Publishing.

König, G. (1992). Language and gender: Language use by men and women. Journal of Linguistic Studies, 3, 25-35.

Kurland, D. (2021). Critical Reading v. Critical Thinking. Retreived on 04.02.2021 from

MONE. (2005). Elementary Turkish lesson curriculum and guide (grades 1-5). Directorate of State Books.

MONE. (2006). Elementary Turkish lesson curriculum and guide (6, 7, 8th grades). Directorate of State Books.

MONE. (2015). Turkish lesson curriculum. Ministry of National Education Publications.

MONE. (2018). Turkish lesson curriculum. Ministry of National Education Publications.

Özbay, M. (2011). Writing training. Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Özonat, Z. (2015). Eighth grade students› perceptions of writing self-efficacy. Erzincan University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 19(2), 453-467.

Parlatır, İ. (2010). Punctuation marks and abbreviations. (Commission) in Turkish language and composition (pp. 315- 358). Ekin Publishing.

Paul, R., &Elder, L. (2005). Critical thinking and the art of substantive writing (Part I). Journal of Developmental Education, 29(1), 40-41.

Potur, Ö. (2014). Critical literacy in Turkish lessons. Journal of Mother Tongue Education, 2(4), 32-49.

Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in teaching writing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sallabaş, M. E. (2007). The level of achievement of primary school fifth grade students’ gains in expressing themselves in writing (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Gazi University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

Seçer, İ. (2017). Practical data analysis with SPSS and LISREL. Anı Publishing.

Serin, M. K., & Korkmaz, İ. (2018). The effect of metacognitive inquiry-based teaching in collaborative environments on mathematical problem solving skills of primary school 4th grade students. Elementary Education Online, 17(2), 510-531.

Söylemez, Y. (2015). Developing critical basic language skills scales for secondary school students. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Ataturk University Institute of Educational Sciences, Erzurum.

Sönmez, V., & Alacapınar, F. (2014). Scientific Research Methods. Anı Publishing.

Tekşan, K. (2013). Writing training. Kriter Publisher.

Temel, S., & Katrancı, M. (2019). The relationship between primary school students’ written expression skills, their attitudes towards writing and their writing anxiety. Eurasian Journal of International Studies, 7(17), 322-356.

Temizkan, M. (2014). Creative writing process. Pegem Akademi Publishing.

Tiryaki, E. N. (2021). Curriculum proposal for teaching critical writing in the context of argumentative writing. RumeliDE Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 23, 153-166.

Topçuoğlu Ünal, F., &Tekin, M. T. (2013). Metaphorical perceptions of Turkish teacher candidates about critical writing. Turkish Studies, 8(13), 1595-1607.

Tutal, Ö., & Oral, B. (2015). The effect of school starting age on literacy achievement in primary literacy learning. Journal of Dicle University Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education, 24, 96-121.

Tüfekçioğlu, B. (2010). Examination of writing skill in terms of some variables. Language Journal,149, 30-45.

Uzun, Y., & Sünter, M. (2020). The Effect of Argumentative Text Writing on Students’ Writing Skills, Critical Thinking, Attitudes towards Writing and Persistence. Journal of Mother Tongue Education,8(1), 157-169.

Ünalan, Ş. (2006). Turkish teaching. (3rd ed.). Nobel Publications.

Wallace, M., & Wray, A. (2008). Critical reading and writing for postgraduates. Sage Publications.

Worden, P.E., &Boettcher, W. (1990). Young Children’s Acquisition of Alphabet Knowledge. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22(3), 277-295.

Varlı, B., & Sağır, Ş. U. (2019). The effect of inquiry-based instruction on middle school students’ science achievement, inquiry perception and metacognitive awareness. Journal of Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty, 39(2), 703-725.

Yalçın, S. D. (1998). A new research area in writing education: creative writing. Turkish Language Teaching and Education Symposium Proceedings,145-152. AU TÖMER Gaziantep Branch Publication.

Yasul, A. F. (2014). Evaluation of the narrative text writing skills of the 4th grade primary school students (Sample of the central district of Muş province) (Unpublished Master Thesis). İnönü University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Malatya.

Yılmaz, S. K. (2008). Narrative text writing skills of primary school sixth grade students (Unpublished Master Thesis). Gazi University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2023 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.