Attitudes to English in the Kaleidoscopic Iranian Context: Second, Foreign or International?

Negar Kiavar, Massoud Yaghoubi-Notash


Today’s world seems to be quite overwhelmingly concerned with communication as an incontestable aspect of which is communicating with people lacking a shared linguistic background. A common language (or lingua franca) would, therefore, be needed which can cut across all local, national, and regional linguistic boundaries. This study aimed at exploring the attitudes of 400 bilingual and monolingual college students and EFL learners. It investigated English language status in the linguistically diverse context of Iran. For the purpose of the study, a standardized questionnaire containing 37 Likert-type items was distributed. Descriptive statistics were employed for data analysis revealing that learners from different linguistic backgrounds had significantly different reactions and attitudes to the issues such as: General perception to English, Status of English, text and content matter comprehensibility through English, job prospects, official status, culture learning, integrating with American or British cultures, religion and foreign language learning, English ownership, Adherence to British English, American English or English as an international language.


Attitude, English as Foreign Language, Multinational Englishes, Ownership of English

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