Syntactic Complexity on Extroverted and Introverted Indonesian Language Learners’ Written Products

Siti Aisah Ginting


The objective of this study was to examine the significance of difference between introverted and extroverted learners in terms of syntactic complexity (Simple Sentences [SS], Compound Sentences [CpdS], Complex Sentences [CpxS], and Compound Complex Sentences [CCS]). The data were collected from written products of 30 introverted and 30 extroverted language learners in the Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Negeri Medan, Indonesia. SPPS (Version 21) was used to analyze the data. It was found that there was a significant difference between introverted and extroverted learners’ written product in terms of syntactic complexity. The introverted learners wrote more SS than extroverts did. In contrast, extroverts wrote more CpdS and CCS than introverts did in their written products. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the groups in CpxS. To sum up, language learners wrote different kinds of sentences in their written products.


Syntactic Complexity, Personality, Introversion, Extroversion, Writing, Language Learner

Full Text:



Allport, G. W., & Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait-names: A psycho-lexical study. Psychological monographs, 47(1).

Baumgaerten, F. (1933). Die Charaktereigensehaften [The Character Traits]. Bern: Francke.

Boyle, G. J., Matthews, G., & Saklofske, D. H. (Eds.). (2008). The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment: Personality measurement and testing (Vol. 2). London: Sage.

Bratko, D., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Saks, Z. (2006). Personality and school performance: Incremental validity of self-and peer-ratings over intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(1), 131-142.

Brown, H.D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th edition). New York: Pearson Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by Principles; An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (3rd edition). New York: Pearson Longman.

Carrell, P. L. (1995). The effects of writers’ personalities and raters’ personalities on the holistic evaluation of writing. Assessing Writing, 2, 153-190.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Erton, I. (2010). Relation between personality traits, language learning styles and success in foreign language achievement. Journal of Education, 38, 115-126.

Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Sandiego, California: Educational and Industrial testing service in

Finch, G. (2000). Linguistic Terms and Concepts. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Fink, A. (2005). Conducting research literature reviews: From the internet to paper. London: Sage.

Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Fourth Edition. Cambridge: Pearson Longman.

Hunt, K.W. (1970). Syntactic maturity in school children and adults. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 35(1), 1- 61.

Jagaiah, T. (2016). Syntactic complexity measures: Variation by genre, grade-level, and students writing abilities(Unpublished manuscript)

Klages, L. (1926). Die psychologischen Errungenschaften Nietzsches.

Marefat, F. (2006). Student writing, personality type of the student and the rater: Any interrelationship? Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 6(2), 116-124.

Myers, I. B., & Briggs, K. C. (1998). Myers- Briggs Type Indicator. STEP I/Self- Scorable, Form M. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Oshima, A. & Hogue. (1999). Writing Academic English (3rd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

Prasad, T. (2012). A Course in Linguistics (2nd ed.). New Delhi: PHI Learning.

Sanjaya, D. (2015). Syntactic Analysis of Extrovert and Introvert EFL Learners’ Descriptive Writing. (Unpublished PhD Thesis) Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.

Sanjaya, D., Mokhtar, A.A., & Sumarsih (2015). The Impact of Personality (Extroversion/Introversion) on Indonesian EFL Learners' Essay Writing Achievement. Asian EFL Journal, 87(10), 4 – 19.

Sharp, A. (2008). Personality and second language learning. Asian Social Science, 4(11), 17.

Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold.

Steele, V. (2004). Product and process writing: a comparison. Retrieved, from

Vaezi, S., & Kafshgar, N. B. (2012). Learner characteristics and syntactic and lexical complexity of written products. International Journal of Linguistics, 4(3), 671-687.

Wakamoto, N. (2000). Language learning strategy and personality variables: Focusing on extroversion and introversion. IRAL. International review of applied linguistics in language teaching, 38(1), 71-81.

Zainuddin, Z. (2016). The Impact of Personality: Extrovert vs. Introvert on the Ability in Syntax in Essay Writing. Studies in English Language and Education, 3(2), 158-169.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.