Disturbance of Native Americans as Reflected in Selected Folkloric Poems of Luci Tapahonso, Joy Harjo and Simon Ortiz

Widad Allawi Saddam, Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya, Hardev Kaur A/P Jujar Singh, Manimangai Mani


As a result of colonialization  and assimilation, the natives were disturbed between past and present. Adopting the colonizer culture, style of life, language and changing home place come together in the mind of Native American people and lead them to be confused; they intermingle between past and present. They want to be themselves but the colonizer wants them to be the others. This feeling of disturbance affected Native American people, especially the chosen poets for this study. This paper shows how Native American people reflect their disturbance toward the colonization in their folkloric poetry. It explains how each element of folklore represents their disturbance towards the colonizer’s dominant culture. This paper will be done under postcolonial framework utilizing Frantz Fanon’s second views about the natives. Disturbance follows assimilation and they together forced Native Americans to present fighting literature which shows the third phase of Fanon. 



Assimilation, disturbance, Native Americans, Frantz Fanon, folklore

Full Text:



Barnes, Joshue. Having to fight for it: An interview with poet/ Musician Joy Harjo. November 15, 2013, accessed March 8, 2014, http:// www.samponiaway.org/literary-voices/2013/11/15.

Barry, Peter. Beginning theory: An introduction to literary and cultural theory. Manchester university press, 2002.

Bird, Gloria, and Joy Harjo, eds. Reinventing the enemy's language: Contemporary Native women's writing of North America. WW Norton, 1997.

Carpenter, Ron. “ Zitkala- Sa and Bicultural subjectivity.” Studies in American Indian literatures 16 (2004): 1-28. ProQuest.

Cruz, Yaneirys. Ortiz’s poetic sequence challenges. 2013.

Fast, Rbin Riley. “ “ It is ours to know: Simon J. Ortiz’s from Sand Greek.” Studies in American Indian Literature. 12.3. 2000: 52-63 print.

Ruppert, Jim. "Paula Gunn Allen and Joy Harjo: Closing the Distance between Personal and Mythic Space." American Indian Quarterly (1983): 27-40.

Mcleod, John. Beginning postcolonialism. Manchester university

Powell, Malea ed. Studies in American Indian literature. University of Nebraska. 2006.

Tapahonso, Luci. Blue horses rush in: poems and stories. Vol. 34. University of Arizona Press, 1997.

Zhaogue, D. I.N.G. “On Resistance in Anti-colonial Marxist writings.” Candian Social Science 7.1 (2011): 38-48 “The poetic of Carol Muske and Joy Harjo.” 123Help Me.com.09Jul 2014.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/iac.ijalel.v.5n.7p.248


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.